One of the most historical power generations is the hydro power, which is common on all continents in small and large scale too. Uganda has an extremely advantageous position for this technology. The key is the selection of the turbines depending on the flow and the head of the water, practically providing the pressure.
In small scale the easiest solution is for getting reasonable output of power the setup of intake- penstock-power house configuration. This is the run off river concept. This needs relatively low volume of civil engineering structures. It is advantageous in remote hilly areas.
In higher capacities one need always a dam, which could be either roller compacted concrete, reinforced concrete, or earthfill dam, depending on the conditions. This is a much larger civil engineering structure, with high capital costs.